List of Muslim Rulers Of India From 1206 AD to 1858 AD

December 20, 2017

The trade relationship between India and Central Asia was established approx in the year 3000 BC (Indus Valley Civilization period). Although at that time there was no Islam religion in Central Asia. The first foreign attack of India was carried out by Demetrius, ruler of Bactria in 190 BC. He took possession of a large part of Punjab and Sindh (now Pakistani provinces). Since then many foreign invaders came to India and continued to establish small states in India. In which Shaka, Pahalvah Kushan was particularly notable.
After 613 AD, Islam religion was founded in Central Asia. The first Muslim attack to India, led by Muhammad Bin Qasim, was carried out by Arabs on 712 AD in Sindh state. At that time the ruler of Sindh was Dahir. Qasim conquered Sindh and went back after plundering immense wealth. At that time, the aim of the Muslim invaders was not to establish power in India but to loot money and promote Islam. The spread of Muslim religion in India was started by Muslim traders. First Muslim traders settled in South India and West India in approx 1000 AD.
The credit for the establishment of Muslim rule in India goes to Muhammad Gauri. The credit for the establishment of Muslim rule in India goes to Muhammad Ghori. He was the ruler of ‘Ghor’ a small state which came under the present Afghanistan. He first invaded the region of Multan in 1175 AD, which is presently located in the middle of Pakistan. In 1191 he attacked on Delhi, at that time Prithviraj Chauhan was on King of Delhi empire. The first battle of Tarain was fought between them, in which the Ghori was lost. The following year, in 1192, Ghori again attacked Delhi. Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192. And thus Muhammad Ghori established the Muslim rule on Delhi. After Ghori’s death in 1206, his slave Qutubuddin Aibak took over the throne of Delhi. With the establishment of Qutubuddin in Delhi in 1206, the beginning of the Sultanate period in India began. The descendants of Qutubuddin are known as the slave dynasty. The list of rulers of the slave dynasty is the following –
Ghulam Dynasty
Qutbuddin Aibak – 1206 AD to 1210 AD (Founder of the Ghulam Dynasty)
Aram Shah – 1210 to 1211 AD
Iltutmish – 1211 to 1236 AD
Rukunuddin Firuz – 1236 AD
Razia Sultan – 1236 to 1240 AD
Bahram Shah – 1240 AD to 1242 AD
Alauddin Masood Shah – 1242 to 1246 AD
Balban – 1266 to 1287 AD
Muiz ud din Qaiqabad- 1287 to 1 February 1290 AD
Kayumars – 1290
Khilji Dynasty
Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji – 13 June 1290 to 1296 AD
Allauddin Khilji – 22 October 1296 to 5 January 1316 AD
Qutbuddin Mubarak Khilji – 1316 to 15 April 1320 AD
Khushron Khan – 15 April 1320 to 5 September 1320
Tughlaq Dynasty
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq – 8 September 1320 to 1325 AD
Muhammad bin Tughlaq – 1325 to 20 March 1351 AD
Firuz Tughlaq – 20 March 1351 to September 1388 AD
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq Shah – 1388 to 1389 AD
Abu Bakr Shah – 1389 to 1390 AD
Muhammad Shah – 1390 to 1394 AD
Alauddin Sikandar Shah – 1394 AD
Naseruddin Mahmud Shah Tughlaq – 1394 to 1413 AD
Sayyid Dynasty
Khizr Khan – 1414 to 20 May 1421 AD (Founder of Sayyid Dynasty)
Mubarak Shah – 1421 to 1434 AD
Muhammad Shah – 1434 to 1445 AD
Ala-ud-din Alam Shah – 1445 to 1451 AD
Lodi Dynasty
Bahlul Lodi – 19 April 1451 to 1489 (Founder of Lodi Dynasty)
Sikandar Shah Lodi – 17 July 1489 to 21 November 1517 AD (Founder of Agra)
Ibrahim Shah Lodi – 21 November to 21 April 1926 (Died in First Battle of Panipat against Babar)
Mughal Dynasty – Phase 1
Babar – 21 April 1526 to 26 December 1530 (Founder of Mughal Empire)
Humayun – 29 December 1530 to 1540
Sur Dynasty
Sher Shah Suri – 17 May 1540 to 22 May 1545 (Founder of Sur Dynasty)
Islam Shah Suri – 26 May 1545 to 22 November 1554
Firuz Shah Suri – 1554
Muhammad Adil Shah – 1554 to 1555
Ibrahim Shah Suri – 1555
Sikandar Shah Suri – 1555
Adil Shah Suri – 1555
Mughal Dynasty – Phase 2
Humayun – 1555 to 1 January 1556
Akbar – 14 February 1556 to 16 October 1605
Jahangir – 24 October 1605 to 28 October 1627
Shahjahan – 4 February 1628 to 5 June 1658 (Died in Agra Fort on 22 January 1666)
Aurangzeb – 8 June 1658 to 20 February 1707
Bahadur Shah I – 19 June 1707 to 27 February 1712 (Known as Shah-E-Bekhabar)
Jahandar Shah – 27 February 1712 to 11 February 1713
Farrukhsiyar – 1713 to 28 February 1719
Rafi-ul Darjat – 28 February 1719 to 4 June 1719
Muhammad Shah – 27 September 1719 to 26 April 1748
Ahmad Shah Bahadur – 29 April 1748 to 2 June 1754
Alamgir II – 2 June 1754 to 29 November 1759
Shah Alam II – 1759 to 1806 (Nominal ruler and got pension from British rule)
Akbar II – 1806 to 1837 (Nominal King under British rule)
Bahadur Shah Zafar – 1837 to 1857 (Last nominal king of Mughal Empaire, Died British jail at Rangoon in 1862)
In 1857 the British ended the Mughal rule and started ruling themselves on India.
Apart from Delhi, many powerful Muslim rulers have ruled over many other states too. The major ones are following –
Tipu Sultan (Ruler of Mysore) – 29 December 1782 to 4 May 1799
Nizams of Hyderabad – 1724 to 1954
Nawabs Of Awadh
Qutb Shahi Dynasty in South India – 1518 to 1687
Nawab Nizam Dynasty of Bengal and Odisha – 1717 to 1765

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